Relevance:Hormonal changes that occur during the life cycle of a woman have an effect on the epithelium of the vagina, in which the glycogen-nutrient medium for lactobacilli is deposited. To date, there is a sufficient amount of information about the features of vaginal microbiocenosis in women of reproductive age. However, there are few publications on the state of microflora in postmenopausal women. There are no data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the state of the vaginal microbiota in postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms. Materials and methods:The study included 136 women with a postmenopausal period from 1 year to 20 years. All patients received a questionnaire and an assessment of the intensity of the symptoms according to a 5-point scale (D.Barlow), diagnosis of VA using a cytological method of investigation. The PCR-RV method was used to quantify the vaginal micribiota, taking into account the total bacterial mass (TBM), the number and fraction of Lactobacillus spp. Results:We carried out a correlation analysis of Pearson between the intensity of all symptoms, lactobacilli shares from CBS and the maturation index (Table 5). The highest dependence was observed between the intensity of symptoms and lactobacilli fractions from CBS (lactobacilli: R2 = -0.224 **, p = 0.008; maturation index: R2 = -0.075, p = 0.388). А decrease in the proportion of lactobacilli aggravates the course of vaginal atrophy: vaginal symptoms are severe only in patients with a lactoflora fraction of 80% or less of the total bacterial mass. Conclusion: Vaginal symptoms are not specific for atrophy of the vaginal mucosa and depend more on the state of the vaginal biocenosis than on the presence or absence of atrophy from the index of maturation of the vaginal epithelium.